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    CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH
    January 24, 1848 - Sutter's Mill, Coloma, California

    This initiated the California Gold Rush and during the next few years, thousands of people flocked to the area to search for gold. Some nuggets of gold in the native metallic form were simply lying on the ground. More were found by panning streambeds, and later, increasingly technological mining methods were employed. John A. Sutter was building a sawmill at Coloma on the American Fork River, to provide lumber for construction projects. His contractor, James W. Marshall made the first discovery of specimens of gold, which he showed to Sutter, who chemically identified it was gold. Further samples were found in the grave of the tail-race of the mill. As recently as 2011, the discovery in northern California of a 100-ounce gold nugget was reported.

    EARLY COMPUTER
    January 24, 1948 - New York City, U.S.A.

    The Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator handled both data and instructions using electronic circuits made with 13,500 vacuum tubes and 21,000 relays. It occupied three sides of a 30-ft x 60-ft room. On the back wall, three punches and thirty readers provided paper-tape storage. Banks of vacuum tube circuits for card reading and sequence control and 36 paper tape readers comprising the table-lookup section occupied the left wall. Most of the right wall was filled by the electronic arithmetic unit and storage. In the center of the room were card readers, card punches, printers, and the operator's console. It was visible to pedestrians on the sidewalk outside.

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  • No Man is Above the Law
    by Theodore Roosevelt

    "..."No man is above the law and no man is below it; nor do we ask any man's permission when we require him to obey it. Obedience to the law is demanded as a right; not asked as a favor."..."
  • A Change is Gonna Come
    by Meredith Grey

    "...Change; we don't like it, we fear it, but we can't stop it from coming. We either adapt to change, or we get left behind. It hurts to grow, anybody who tells you it doesn't is lying. But here's the truth: Sometimes the more things change, the more they stay the same. And sometimes, oh, sometimes change is good. Sometimes change is everything...."

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  • Cancer Facts & Figures
    about Besides Lung Cancer

    Besides lung cancer, tobacco use also increases the risk for cancers of the mouth, lips, nasal cavity (nose) and sinuses, larynx (voice box), pharynx (throat), esophagus (swallowing tube), stomach, pancreas, kidney, bladder, uterus, cervix, colon/rectum, ovary (mucinous), and acute myeloid leukemia. Drug Abuse
    about Facts about Drugs

    Facts about drugs can protect against drug abuse. Legal drugs, such as alcohol and tobacco, kill more people than illegal drugs. Tobacco (smoking cigarettes) kills more people than any other drug. Illegal drugs including heroin, cannabis, ecstasy and amphetamines can have unknown or dangerous ingredients. Mixing drugs, especially with alcohol, can be fatal.

Evaluating A Roof Repair :

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Evaluating A Roofing Replacement:

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Having the opportunity to estimate the amount that it may cost to replace a roof is often a fragile calculation. For a roofing contractor, they often keep in mind various factors directly to ensure about whether or not a straightforward repair needs to be done, or total replacement.

Usually, a roof should last more than two decades. The longevity of the roof is usually dependent on how well it was actually maintained over the years. Climatic conditions can also be a factor.

For example, water can get underneath shingles after which become ice. This may cause leaks, plus a considerable amount of damage. When the sun is especially intense, it can cause shingles to blister.

If your roof does find yourself needing to be replaced, step one will be to have a contractor measure your entire home. They'll measure the time no matter what the roofing system by its height up to the peak. They'll determine the length of time the whole system's ridges are, and decide how much of the cover needs to be replaced.

The entire roofing structure is calculated in squares which equals 100 ft² or 10 feet times 10 feet. For instance, a 1400 ft roof would contain 14 roofing squares. While these square help contractors to figure out their pricing estimate, other reasons, like costs of tearing off the present roof, should also be calculated.

Determining the number of squares on any roof aids the homeowner after they try to figure out what their most suitable choice is in relation to replacements. However, its not all roof is strong enough to accommodate all kinds of roofing material. The weight of an asphalt shingle is considerably less when compared to a concrete tile, and to discover the roofing system may not be devised to handle the extra weight.

The total price in estimating the price of a roof replacement is usually highly depending on the amount that the roofing contractors charge per square. That is why you will need to receive at least 3 - 4 bids from reputable contractors in the community. Further, they'll have the opportunity to try your roof, discover your material preferences, and come up with a reasonable estimate of the volume of a brand new roof shall be cost.

Understand that its not all factors of a roofing replacement can be found up front. For instance, there could be a damage besides the substrate, or a pest problem. However, based upon just how much a contractor charges per square in addition to materials chosen, the homeowner can certainly estimate how much it may cost to swap out the roof.

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