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    TELEPHONE SWITCHBOARD
    January 17, 1882 - Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

    A telephone switchboard was issued a U.S. patent to Leroy Firman of Chicago, Illinois (No. 252,576), which was assigned to the Western Electric Manufacturing Co. Also of Chicago. With his invention of a “multiple switchboard for telephone exchanges,” Firman addressed the problem of increasing numbers of subscribers. Previously, single switchboards, each with an attendant, served their group of individual lines. A large exchange was thus divided up into a number of internal exchange switchboards which were worked together as necessary, with trunk lines between the boards. Firman devised an arrangement to handle an exchange of a thousand or more subscribers with line status information exchanged between switchmen.

    PUNCHBOARDS
    January 17, 1905 - Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

    The first U.S. patent was issued for a punchboard to Charles A. Brewer and Clinton G. Scannell of Chicago, Illinois, described as “vending devices.” They were manufactured by Charles A. Brewer & Sons in the same city. (No. 780,086). Even though the equivalent of punchboards had been around for many years, they had never been available in such a neat and portable form. The invention of board stuffing machines and ticket folding and plaiting machines in the late 1910s was probably the key factor which allowed the punchboard industry to flourish. Once the boards became cheap to manufacture, they flooded the country. Noted gambling author John Scarne estimates that 30 million punchboards were sold in 1910-15.

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    "...All of us have a God in us, and that God is the spirit that unites all life, everything that is on this planet. It must be this voice that is telling me to do something, and I am sure it'as the same voice that is speaking to everybody on this planet at least everybody who seems to be concerned about the fate of the world, the fate of this planet. Wangari Maathai-Noble Peace prize winner, Deputy Minister of Environment, founder Green Belt movement in Kenya...."

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    More vehicles are stolen on New Year's Day than any other holiday throughout the year. (So does that mean thieves are having their last fling before changing their ways or are they trying for a big score to start the New Year?)

Evaluating A Roof Repair :

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Evaluating A Roofing Replacement:

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Having the opportunity to estimate the amount that it may cost to replace a roof is often a fragile calculation. For a roofing contractor, they often keep in mind various factors directly to ensure about whether or not a straightforward repair needs to be done, or total replacement.

Usually, a roof should last more than two decades. The longevity of the roof is usually dependent on how well it was actually maintained over the years. Climatic conditions can also be a factor.

For example, water can get underneath shingles after which become ice. This may cause leaks, plus a considerable amount of damage. When the sun is especially intense, it can cause shingles to blister.

If your roof does find yourself needing to be replaced, step one will be to have a contractor measure your entire home. They'll measure the time no matter what the roofing system by its height up to the peak. They'll determine the length of time the whole system's ridges are, and decide how much of the cover needs to be replaced.

The entire roofing structure is calculated in squares which equals 100 ft² or 10 feet times 10 feet. For instance, a 1400 ft roof would contain 14 roofing squares. While these square help contractors to figure out their pricing estimate, other reasons, like costs of tearing off the present roof, should also be calculated.

Determining the number of squares on any roof aids the homeowner after they try to figure out what their most suitable choice is in relation to replacements. However, its not all roof is strong enough to accommodate all kinds of roofing material. The weight of an asphalt shingle is considerably less when compared to a concrete tile, and to discover the roofing system may not be devised to handle the extra weight.

The total price in estimating the price of a roof replacement is usually highly depending on the amount that the roofing contractors charge per square. That is why you will need to receive at least 3 - 4 bids from reputable contractors in the community. Further, they'll have the opportunity to try your roof, discover your material preferences, and come up with a reasonable estimate of the volume of a brand new roof shall be cost.

Understand that its not all factors of a roofing replacement can be found up front. For instance, there could be a damage besides the substrate, or a pest problem. However, based upon just how much a contractor charges per square in addition to materials chosen, the homeowner can certainly estimate how much it may cost to swap out the roof.

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